Oman antique photo lady with burqa
Rare photo postcard from around 1910 showing an Omani lady with a burqa
OMAN OLD PHOTOS

Oman is located on the South East corner of the Arabian peninsula bordered by the Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and the Gulf of Oman. For more details on this website and Oman select BACKGROUND in the top bar of this web-page. The focus of our Oman page is on the period before 1940. Early original photos of Oman are very difficult to find, and most of those photos relate to Muscat only.  Even early postcards are extremely  rare. Below you find a series of original photos from between 1890 and 1943. The panorama view of Muscat from around 1900 is an Important find as it shows many details of the Muscat seafront (when enlarged) Also the 1938 aerial photo of Muscat including a double wing plane is very special.  There are  a number of books with some old photos of Oman:

  • "Mascate Voyage execute a la fin de 1898" by Allemann in Tour du monde Tome Vii nouvelle Serie 7e liv  16 Fevrier 1901 (main focus on Muscat and surroundings) Contains many photos of Muscat and surroundings.
  • "Old Oman" by Peyton 1983 Stacey International. Contains many photos of Oman including many of the interior from 1927-1970.
  • "Mascate" by Denis de Rivoyre published in the in the series Bibliotheque illustree des voyages autour du monde par terre & par mer Nr 36 1898.

  • The same publication in Italian with the title Mascate (il sultanato dell´Oman nr 61 in the series Bibliotheca illustrata viaggi introno al mondo per terra e par mare.1898

  • "vom Mittelmeer zum Perzischen Golf band II page 323-371 includes several fine photographs of Muscat" by Max von Oppenheim published  by Dietrich Riemer Berlin 1900 (Photos in Muscat taken years earlier)
  • "Some excursions into Oman" by Percy Cox In Geographical journal Vol LXVI no3 1925 page 193 with interesting photos of Muscat, Nizwa, Tanuf and the Jebel Akhdar. The photos were taken in 1900 when the trip took place. Percy Cox was the chairman of the Geographic Society in 1925.
  • "Alarms and excursions in Arabia" by Bertram Thomas was  published by George Allen & Unwin 1931 Main focus on interior of Oman! Bertram was Finance minister and Wazir for the Sultan of Oman from 1925-1932.
  • "A French Consul in Muscat 1905" by Xavier Beguin Billecocq published in 1991
  • "Historical Muscat" by Peterson 2007 published by Brill
  • "Muscat Gate Museum memoirs of history" April 2001 Diwan of Royal Court Allegro Communication Muscat.
  • "Along the Gulf From Basra to Muscat. Photographs by Hermann Burchardt", Annegret Nippa, Peter Herbstreuth, Schiller 2005 (most photos from around 1900) German title "Unterwegs am Golf von Basra nach Maskat" Bi-lingual publication.

Antique photo Oman Muscat

Fine 1930's photo of Muscat including a double-wing plane! On the right the Sultan's old al Alam palace

The British Museum has a small set of fine photos of Muscat dating to the 1870´s.

Below you find our own 30  original vintage photos and postcards plus some photos taken from the above publications in our collection. Several of our photos are taken by staff on British warships visiting Muscat. The trade-route between India and the UK was vital to Britain. Britain  made this route even more efficient by the digging of the Suez canal (shortened the route) and the laying of telegraph cables (faster communication) . Consequently Britain wanted to "manage"  all the nations along this crucial trade-route. In 1864 the British even occupied a place in Musandam named "Malcolms inlet" when they were laying the telegraph cable to the Gulf. In 1886 the Kuria Muria group of islands were passed to the British again for landing the Red sea (telegraph)  cable (see Zwemer p 219) 

Youtube film with an air display by the RAF for the  Sultan of Oman:

 

1897 Map of Muscat and Muttrah

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Map produced by captain Stiffe

 

Capt. A. Stiffe Geographical Journal 1897. Map by Capt. Stiffe to accompany his article in the Geographical Journal of 1897. The map was also included in the book by von Oppenheim. 

 

 

Muscat History

Muscat is enclosed by mountains on the land side. In fact the bay of Muscat extends only a few hundred meters inland. The harbor itself is also partly enclosed with rocks, hence people referred to it as the hidden harbor. This in combination with the favorable water depths made it an ideal natural harbor.  It is not surprising that when the Portuguese conquered Muscat in 1507 it was already a very important trading center. Archaeological evidence close to Muscat  shows that already  thousands of years ago there was "international"  trade with the "Indus valley civilization"  one of the earliest civilizations on earth. In fact the famous classic Greek geographer  Ptolemy mentions a "hidden harbor" in Arabia Felix , which is probably  Muscat. The Greek and Romans imported incense from Arabia Felix. A voyage to Arabia Felix is described in the ancient book "Periplus of the Erythraean Sea"

During the first quarter of the 16th century the Portuguese build forts on both sides of the bay. In 1650  the Omani (Ya´ariba) took over control from  the Portuguese. As a consequence of struggle between different Omani tribes the Persians gained control of Muscat. Saif bin Sultan II  (Ya´ariba) appealed in 1742 / 1743 to the Persians for military help which resulted in the Persians under Nadir Shah taking over most of the country. Ahmad bin Said Al Busaidi, was the governor of Sohar when a Persian fleet attacked the town. He held out for nine months, finally forcing the Persian commander of Nader Shah's army to come to terms and leave the country altogether within a few years. He was elected imam in 1744, marking the last time Oman was occupied by foreign parties and the beginning of a new unified state. It was also the start of a dynasty that has lasted to the present day, making it one of the oldest surviving royal dynasties in Arabia.

References: 

  1. Max von Oppenheim in his book vom Mittelmeer zum Perzischen Golf band II after  page 332

RAF Aerial photo Muscat 1938 including double wing plane!!!

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Aerial photo Muscat 1938 including double wing plane

 

Photo taken by  members of the British RAF 211 squadron  based in Iraq around 1938. Size 20,3 by 15,2 cm.  

 

  

 

Muscat old Al Alam Palace  Below the double wing plane (next to the sea) you see the Sultan's old Al Alam Palace

 

Photographer: Photo taken by  members of the British RAF 211 squadron  based in Iraq around 1938. Size 20,3 by 15,2 cm.

Muscat in the 19th century

Magnificent view of Muscat with on the left Fort Jalali and on the right the old Bayt Al Alam palace of the Sultan of Oman.The palace was build in the early eighteen-hundreds by Said bin Sultan, the sultan of Oman and Zanzibar. The Al Alam palace was replaced in 1972 by a modern ceremonial palace by Sultan Qaboos the current Sultan of Oman. Note the double wing plane on the top right!

During the middle of the 19th century Muscat harbor was visited on a daily basis by a whale.  The American Joseph Osgood writes: " No visitor to the harbor is better welcomed by the natives than ´Muscat Tom´ This name has been given by sailors to a male fin-back whale which has made a habitual practice for over forty years to enter and frolic about the cove several hours in each day, always leaving before night. Sometimes a smaller member of his tribe supposed to be a female , accompanies him. His length may not be less than seventy feet and that of his companion fifty feet. Since his arrival signalises the departure of the sharks which invest the waters of the harbor to the prevention of sea-bathing by the natives, the most strenuous caution is observed not to interfere with his pursuits and diversions.   He shows no fear of such vessels as trespass upon his watery field. One day as he came rolling leisurely and jollily along side of a vessel at anchor in the harbor, and on board of which I was, once of the crew threw with considerable impetus a stick of wood into his open mouth as he raised his huge head out of the water. This breach of good treatment which he had been wont to receive did not draw any sign of displeasure from his whaleship, although more than one malediction was bestowed upon the imprudent tar by exasperated natives who had observed his censurable conduct"

 References:
  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007 photo 72;
  2. Muscat gate Museum memoirs of history p 35,36
  3. Muscat gate Museum, memoirs of history page 35,36 shows situation around 1950 ; page 32-33 shows the location of the different population quarters in Muscat including Al Bu Said, Al-´Awr, Mughub, Al-Baharinah, Banyan (Hindu), Al-Waljat and Al- Madbaghah.
  4. Joseph B.F. Osgood Notes of Travel or recollections of Majunga, Zanzibar, Muscat, Aden, Mocha and other Eastern ports Salem 1854 page 76-77

RAF Aerial photo Muscat 1938 taken from the land side

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RAF Aerial photo Muscat 1938

Aerial photo of Muscat taken from the land side.

Aerial photo taken by members of the British RAF 211 squadron based in Iraq around 1938. The RAF 211 squadron was formed in 1918 and disbanded in 1919. It was reformed in 1937 and posted in the Middle East in 1938.  Photo size 20,3 by 15,2 cm 

 

Muscat around 1900

In 1900 S.M. Zwemer (ref 1 ) writes about Muscat:  "The town is cut off from the plain behind by a substantially built wall that stretches from hill to hill. This wall is pierced with two gates which are always guarded and closed a couple of hours after sunset. The moat outside the wall is dry. Beyond the houses and hundreds of mat huts principally in habited by Beluchis and NegroesThe American mission house (where Zwemer worked) is also outside the wall in this quarter . About a third of a mile beyond are the gardens of Muscat and the wells, protected by a tower and guard.

 

Von Oppenheim Ref 4 page 328 writes in 1900 about the Beluchi and a small community of Jews in Mutrah: "Von der gegenuberliegenden Kuste des Golfs sind Belutschen und Persen eingewandert. Die ersten , an zahl einige Tausend, teils Arbeiter und Diener, teils soldaten, fallen durch ihre hohe, kraftige Gestalt auf. Ihre behausungen und deren Nachbarschaft zeichen sich im gegensatz zu den Arabischen Vierteln durch einen sehr geringen Grad von sauberkeid aus. Die Perser, hochstens 200, sind waffenschmiede, Kramer oder handwerker, besonders weber von seidenstoffen, die nach den stadten des Golfs, nach Sudarabien und Zanzibar exportiert werden" Von Oppenheim Ref 4 page 329 writes on the Luwatija in Mattrah: "Von Muhammedanischen Indern sind zwei Klassen vorhanden Choga (In Maskat Luwaija genannt) und die verachteten Gatt (In Maskat Jutts oder Zatoots genannt); wahrend die ersteren in Maskat und dem benachbarten Matrah, woselbst sie einem besonderen durch Mauern umgeben Stadtteil eng zusammen wohnen, in einer Starke von etwa 1000 Personen vertreten sind, durften die letzteren hochstens 150 bis 200 zahlen. In Matrah lebt ferner eine kleine Kolonie von Juden , die angeblich im Beginne dieses Jahrhunderts aus Bardad eingewanert ist" For an 1998 aerial photo of the Lawatiyah quarters see ref 2 photo 50.

 

Wellsted 1836 (Ref 5) writes about the Jews in Oman: "In 1828 Jews were forcibly driven out of Baghdad (see Wellsted p 21) by the cruel Pacha Daud. A group of these Jewish fugitives came to Muscat and many of these were involved in the making of silver ornaments. In this period Oman was very tolerant to the Jews (and people of other religions as well) and they did not have to live in a secluded part of town neither did they have to wear a batch indicating they were a Jew like was done in Syria and Egypt in the 1820´s"

 

The Jews in Muttrah that Oppenheim refers to in 1900 are probably descendants of the Jews that Wellsted spoke about. Von Oppenheim writes on page 330 that most of the trade is from Muttrah and that it is in the hands of the Indian community. Also that they are active in the pawn business with arms being taken in as pledge / security for loans.

 

References
  1. Cradle of Islam by S.M Zwemer the  : New York 1900
  2. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brilll Leiden 2007 photo 69, 70
  3. Muscat gate Museum, memoirs of history p 88 situation 1900; page 32-33 Showing the location of the different population groups living in Muscat  
  4. Vom Mittelmeer zum Perzischen Golf band II by Max von Oppenheim  page 329   Large photo of  situation 1898
  5. Travels in Arabia by Wellsted 1838 John Murray page 21

Panorama of Muscat taken around 1900 or earlier.

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Muscat seafront panorama

Spectacular detailed sea front panorama of Muscat taken around 1900 or earlier.

The Sultan´s palace complex is on the right hand side and the British Consulate on the left. Customs house area is in the middle. Photographer unknown.

Antique photo panorama Muscat

Muscat Al Alam Palace

Detail of the above photo: The old Bayt al Alam palace, the main palace of the Sultan of Oman in Muscat

 

Muscat Panorama in 1900

The original photo (1900 or earlier) with the panorama of  Muscat harbor is of very high resolution: when we magnify the photo to well over a meter it is still sharp. See the slide-show for some details (real details are better than on our website) The photo slide-show also contains a photo by von Oppenheim (see ref 7) of the side of the Bayt al Alam palace Harem.

From Left to right we see:

  1. Al-Jalali Fort
  2. British consulate compound
  3. House of Masjid Hamnadbin Muhammad
  4. Customs House
  5. Harem of Bayt Al Alam  (sultan´s palace)
  6. Rest of Bayt al Alam
  7. Bayt al Barza
  8. Start of the hill that has fort Al Mirani on top (not visible)

Most Omani are Ibadhi moslims who adhere to a puritan form of Islam. They also underscore their their strictness and simplicity in the decoration  of their mosques and lack of high minarets. The only spectacular decoration being the Mihrab (praying niche) Several Omani mosques have spectacular praying niches dating back to the 15th / 16th century (for illustrations of beautiful Omani  Mihrabs see e.g. ref 4 page 70 and 71) These Mihrabs are similar to Miharbs in Iran dating back as early as the 9th century.

The British explorer Wellsted writes in the 1830´s that the town displayed a nice appearance from afar, with handsome houses and a palace of the Imam, which the Italian physician Maurizi had noted, had been rebuilt in a European style, see ref 6.

The exploring couple  mr. and mrs Bent visited Muscat in the 1890´s and noted that most of Muscat in now in ruins and that three walls of the big Portuguese cathedral are still standing and that the interior is used as a horse stable for the sultan.

S.M. Zwemer (see reference) in 1900 writes in his book Cradle of Islam p 204/205:  "That in 1895  there was a major uprise from tribes in the interior (he calls Bedouin)  These tribes managed to take Muscat and looted the town. The cause of the trouble was a difference as to the amount of yearly tribute a certain Sheikh Saleh of Samed should pay the Muscat ruler.   The "bedouin" came to Muscat for negotiations and Saleh received some money from the Sultan. The sultan asked the "bedouin" to camp outside the gates during the night. However part of the "bedouin"  remained inside the town and during night the gates were attacked by them.  The Sultan fled to one of the two forts after the "bedouin " entered the palace. Subsequently the sultan´s forces in the two forts opened fire with  ancient Portuguese canons and  bombarded the  "bedouin" in th Sultan´s own palace!!!  The "bedouin" took possession of the town closing the gates and posting armed men through out the bazaar and streets.  The palace was completely looted. However the parts of the town occupied by the British were left unharmed. After some time reinforcements of the Sultan arrived and major fighting broke out. During a ceasefire the British subjects were allowed to leave  Muscat and go to the town of Makalla.   Subsequently British canon boats arrived but they did not help the Sultan.... When the conflict ended the British even saddled the Sultan with a large invoice of damage done to the British! "

References:
  1. Arabia The cradle of Islam by S.M. Zwemer New York 1900 p 203-205;
  2. Catalog of the Oman exhibition in the Nieuwe Kerk Amsterdam 2009 page Arabische schepen p 83 - p 94
  3. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007
  4. Muscat gate Museum memoirs of history p 86,87, p 88, p 89, p 41, p 42
  5. Mascate by Emile Allemann in Le Tour du Monde 1901 page 74 - page 75 contains a similar panorama photo taken in 1898
  6. J.R. Wellsted travels in Arabia John Murray 1838
  7. Max von Oppenheim in his book vom Mittelmeer zum Perzischen Golf band II after page 330

Muscat harbour around 1890

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Includes the old Bayt al Alam palace and Mirani fort

Photo taken around 1890 of Muscat harbour incl Bayt al Alam palace, Bait Greiza and fort Mirani. Mediocre quality, but lots of interesting details. Photographer unknown.

 

 Muscat old al Alam Palace 1890

The Sultan's old Al Alam palace in Muscat

Bayt Al Alam palace around 1890

Photo of Muscat harbour taken last years of the 19th century. From left to right we see:

  1. Harem of Bayt Al Alam (sultan´s palace)
  2. Rest of Bayt al Alam
  3. Bayt al Barza
  4. The next white building, lighting up from the sunlight is Bait Greiza. Bait Greiza was one of the Al bu said houses built probably in the early 19th century (like the palace) and took its name from its proximity to the old Portuguese "cathedral" . The house was demolished and rebuilt in the 1970´s.
  5. The entrance of the khawr with many small boats in front
  6. Al Mirani fort on top of the hill

The modern palace of Sultan Qaboos in Muscat is located more or less  on the spot of the old palace.

References:
  1. Muscat gate museum memoirs of History, Allegro communications, Muscat 2001 page 40 bottom left (similar view)

The grave of Bishop French in Muscat

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Grave of Bishop French

 

The photo on the left was taken by George H. Judd, a fellow of the Royal Geographic Society who visited Muscat around 1900.  

The graveyard is only accessible from the sea.

The other photo of Al-Jalali fort is also by an unknown photographer. 

 

Bishop French Muscat Oman

Grave Bishop French Muscat Oman 

Bishop French and other missionaries in Muscat

Photo of the grave of Bishop French who died May 1891 in Muscat after (apparently) getting a sunstroke when traveling from Muttrah to Muscat.  He intended to do missionary work in the interior of Oman but never managed to do so. 

The Death of Bishop French inspired two young Americans, Samuel Zwemer and James Cantine to found the Arabian Mission of the Dutch Reformed church in America. Zwemer was able to purchase a large plot of land outside the walls for the mission, and here had a station built. S.M. Zwemer (see reference)  says: "The grave of Bishop French is in the bottom of a narrow ravine circled by black rocks and reached by boat, by rounding the rocky point to the south of Muscat. Here are many graves of sailors of the Royal marine and others who died on this burning  and inhospitable coast. Here also rests the body of Rev. Stone, the American Missionary, who was called home in the summer of 1899, after a short period of service"

 In 1897 Peter Zwemers brother travelled across the very high Jebel Akhdar mountains (See References section) Unfortunately he died the next year.  

In 1908 the mission built a school and in 1913 a hospital for women. In 1909 Dr. Sharon Thoms arrived in Muttrah to set up the first medical mission in Oman, but he was killed in 1913 in an accident and also buried near to Bishop French. His son (Sharon Thoms) would much later (1939)  set up an early  hospital in the Sultanate starting with a leprosy care center outside the walls of Muttrah, he stayed in Oman for 40 years until 1970.  Dr. Donald and Mrs Eloise Bosch  came to Muscat in 1955 to join the American Mission hospital in Muttrah and played a key role in establishing the current National Health service in Oman.

References:
  1. Cradle of Islam by S.M. Zwemer Arabia:   New York 1900 page 351;
  2. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007 aerial  photo 139 shows the situation 1998
  3. Muscat Gate Museum Memoirs of History p 32-p 33 map showing location of the Christian cemetery.
  4. S.M. Zwemer Three journeys in Northern Oman 1902 The Geographical Journal, Vol XIX
  5. Throw down the anchor The story of the Muttrah souq by Maxine Burden, centre for Omani dress, Muscat Media Group page 72-77. 2014 Contains a good article about Donald and Eloise Bosch.

Fort Al Jalali in Muscat

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Muscat fort Jalali

Photo of Fort al Jalali taken in 1900 or earlier by an unknown photographer.

The fort was built by the Portuguese in 1587.

 

 

Antique photo fort Jalali Muscat

 antique photo fort Jalali Muscat Oman

Fort al Jalali history

Al Jalali Fort is a fortified enclosure covering the entire mountain top with walls surrounding garrison buildings, a single watch tower, and a large gun platform overlooking the bay. The fort had a single staircase of 80 steps cut into the rock. Fort al-Jalali was built by the Portuguese around 1587 to protect the harbor after Muscat had twice been sacked by Ottoman forces. It fell to Omani forces in 1650. During the civil wars between 1718 and 1747, the fort was twice captured by Persians who had been invited to assist one of the rival Imams. The fort was extensively rebuilt later. At times, al Jalali served as a refuge or a jail for a member of the royal family. For much of the 20th century it was used as Oman's main prison, but this function ended in the 1970´s. Fort al-Jalali was restored in 1983 and converted into a museum that is accessible only to dignitaries visiting the country.

References:
  1. Muscat gate museum memoirs of History, Allegro communications, Muscat 2001 page 40 bottom left (similar view)
  2. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007 aerial  photo 139 shows the situation 1998

Fort Al Mirani in Muscat 1933

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Fort Al Mirani Muscat 1933

Photo of fort Al Mirani taken in 1933 by a British naval officer during a visit of HMS Duncan to Muscat. Name of the officer not known.

The fort was built by the Portuguese.

 

Fort Al Mirani Muscat

Antique photo of Fort Mirani Muscat Oman, the original flag of Oman was plain red

Fort Mirani history

The Italian architect Carlos Cairate, who had previously designed Fort Jesus at Mombassa (see Zanzibar section of our website) was sent to Muscat to built Fort Mirani. The new fort was completed in 1588 by captain Belchior Calaca in 1588. At later stages new elements were added to the fort.  Sultan Qaboos added a new tower to conceal a lift to the fortress. During restoration work in the 1970´s the lower gun platform was razed in order to build a road to the new naval base in Mukalla cove. 

References:
  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007 photo 19 (Fort Jalali)

1902 S.M. Zwemer Three journeys in Northern Oman

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Omani children Silver amulets Photo by S.M. Zwemer

 

The Omani children on the photo taken by S.M. Zwemer are wearing lots of silver jewelry including Koran boxes, nose rings, anklets, amulets etc. This was done to protect them from the evil eye!  

 

 

 

 

Missionary Zwemer Exploring Oman

S.M. Zwemer was a missionary of the Dutch reformed church of America. He describes three journeys in this article:

  1. May 1900 he crossed from Sharka on the Persian Gulf to Shinas and Sohar via Waddi Hitta
  2. Feb 1901 he travelled along the Pirate Coast from Abu Thabi to Sharka
  3. May 1901 he travelled across the North of Oman from Abu Thabi to Sohar via Buraimi
References:
  1. S.M. Zwemer Three journeys in Northern Oman 1902 The Geographical Journal, Vol XIX
  2. Travels in Oman , Philip Ward, The Oleander Press 1987 page 242

Masked Lady from Muscat in 1901

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Masked Muscat Lady Postcard by Arabiantz

 

Postcard with the photo of a masked lady of Muscat 1901 with the title  "Type de femme de Mascate".

The photo has been taken by K. Arabiantz possibly a Frenchman. He also produced some postcards for East Africa. 

 

 

 Antique Poscard Omani woman

Antique Postcard Omani Woman

Postcard details

Omani lady with mask (quite rare) Subtitle printed in red.

References:

  1. The traditional Women´s Dress of Oman by Julia m. Stehlin-Alzadjali, Centr eof Omani dress 2010 page 65
  2. Oman's national dress for women (special supplement)  in Times of Oman in association The Zubair cooperation 17 November 2015

Masked lady from Muscat 1901-1910

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Masked Muscat lady Postcard by Fernandez

 

Coloured posctcard dating from between 1901 and 1910 with the title "Arab woman from Muscat"

The photo has been taken by A.R. Fernandez, who produced most of the early postcards of Oman. 

 

 

 

 Antique postcard woman Muscat Oman

Antique postcard woman Muscat Oman

 

Postcard details

Arab woman Muscat by Fernandez.  Colored postcard.  Printed in Germany.  These cards are very rare.  The same photo was also used years later in an article in the New-York Times in 1916 (see below)

References:
  1.  New York Times mid week pictorial March 9 1916 "Masked and Jeweled women of war-girt Arabia"
  2. The postcard was also used as book cover for the book: "Oman, Culture and Diplomacy" by Jones, Jeremy; Ridout, Nicholas Edinburgh University Press, 2012
  3. The traditional Women´s Dress of Oman by Julia m. Stehlin-Alzadjali, Centr eof Omani dress 2010 page 65
  4. Oman's national dress for women (special supplement)  in Times of Oman in association The Zubair cooperation 17 November 2015

Masked Baluchi ladies in Muscat by A.R. Fernandez 1901

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Masked Muscat ladies Postcard by Fernandez 1901

Postcard with photo of Baluchi women with masks in Muscat by A.R. Fernandez 1901.

Original inscription in pencil on the back of the postcard: "what about falling in love with one of these" . Not a strange comment, it happened to the German Rudolph Ruete who fell in love with the Omani princess Bibi Salme in Zanzibar! 

 

 

 

Antique postcard woman Oman

Antique postcard woman Muscat Oman

Postcard details

Two women wearing Omani jewelry! Printed on Germany. These cards are very rare. The same photo was also used years later in an article in the New-York Times in 1916 (see below)  It was also used in the article Notes on Oman by S.M. Zwemer in 1911 (Ref 2) page 95 with the title "native women in Oman, the heavy silver anklets, ear-rings, bracelets and nose jewels are typical , as is also the peculiar veil worn over the face"

References:
  1. New York Times mid week pictorial March 9 1916 "Masked and Jeweled women of war-girt Arabia"
  2. National Geographic magazine Washington Jan 1911
  3. The traditional Women´s Dress of Oman by Julia m. Stehlin-Alzadjali, Centr eof Omani dress 2010 page 65
  4. Oman's national dress for women (special supplement)  in Times of Oman in association The Zubair cooperation 17 November 2015

Masked Baluchi woman in Muscat 1901-1910

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Masked Baluchi woman in Muscat

 

Postcard with photo of a masked Baluchi woman with lots of silver jewelry in Muscat by A.R. Fernandez 1901. The koranbox is unusual fro Oman as it has a stone in the middle.

Fernandez produced most of the early postcards of Oman.  

 

 Antique postcard woman oman

Antique postcard woman Muscat Oman

Postcard details

Baluchi woman wearing Omani jewelry! Printed on Germany. These cards are very rare. The same photo was also used years later in an article in the New-York Times in 1916 (see below) The silver "Muttrah style"  koran-box is unusual for Oman as it has a stone in the middle: For an almost identical example see ref 2

References:
  1. New York Times mid week pictorial March 9 1916 "Masked and Jeweled women of war-girt Arabia
  2. Oman Adorned a portrait in silver Robert Richmond, Miranda Morris etc.  Apex Publishing Muscat & Oman page 98 illustration A : "a Muttrah-style hirz, whose style was probably influenced by merchants who originally came from Baluchistan (in present day Pakistan)"
  3. The traditional Women´s Dress of Oman by Julia m. Stehlin-Alzadjali, Centr eof Omani dress 2010 page 65
  4. Oman's national dress for women (special supplement)  in Times of Oman in association The Zubair cooperation 17 November 2015

Masked and Jeweled women of war-girt Arabia 1916

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Masked women Arabia New York Times 1916

 

Four  photos of masked ladies in an article with the title "Masked and Jeweled women of war-girt Arabia" in the New York Times of 1916.

In fact they used for the article the photos from older postcards of masked Muscat ladies produced by A.R. Fernandez. The titles below the photos also differ from those of Fernandez!  Also no reference to Fernandez in the article.  

 

 

Antique Omani Burqa

 

Antique Omani Burqa

 

Antique Omani Burqa

 

Antique Omani Burqa

 

Details of New York Times 1916 article

Four photos of masked Muscat women published  in March 9 1916 in  The New York Times mid-week pictorial. The texts below the pictures in the American magazine are:

  • Behind the bars! Every women in Muscat is her own jailer- for modesty´s sake
  • With rings on her fingers and bells on her wrists - an Arab girl of Muscat
  • Masked, jeweled , and embroidered  - women of Koweit in the Northern part of Arabia (???) (comment: She wears Antal anklets)
  • With armlets and anklets of gold - a Seedeboy girl of the Persian Gulf. Comment:  Seedeboy is anglo-indian slang for an African (e.g. used by Kipling) Note she is also wearing antal.anklets.

Note: Three of the pictures are taken from "A.R. Fernandes" postcards that were used in Muscat approx ten years earlier. The titles in the American magazine do not match the postcard titles... Suspect the fourth lady is also copied from a postcard we have not found yet.

References: No references

"The Bazaar Gate Muscat" Oman Al Bab al Shagir / Bab al Saghir

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Bazaar Gate Muscat Postcard

 

Photo with title "Bazaar Gate Muscat" by Verlag gebr. Israel Hamburg / Weltpostverein (issued between 1900-1910)

Extremely rare postcard!  One of the best known postcards of Muscat, the image is e.g.  used on coffee mugs in souvenir shops or as a jig-saw  etc.  However an original card like this one is extremely rare.  Has London postage stamp Feb. 1910.

Antique Postcard Muscat Gate

 

Details of Muscat town-gates

On the earlier aerial photo we have seen that muscat is protected by a wall from cliff to cliff and fortified with towers.  The wall has three gates that were shut every evening three hours after sundown. The closing of the gates was announced by drum beats from fort Mirani. Anyone who wanted  to walk in the city after closure had to carry a lamp. The closing of the gates during dark continued until 1970, when Sultan Qaboos took over from his father. Size 8,5 by 13,5 cm

References:
  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007  photo 102 (situation (1966)
  2. Muscat Gate Museum memoirs of History page 86-87 contains a town plan showing the location of the Bab-al-Saghir gate and its proximity to the  Muscat souq. For a photo of the Muscat souq around 1900 see page 25 and 26 top photo. 
  3. Throw down the anchor The story of the Muttrah souq by Maxine Burden, centre for Omani dress, Muscat Media Group 2014 page 296-298 contains information on the Muscat souq

1901 Article by Emile Alleman with 20 photos of Muscat taken by him in Le tour du Monde 1901 / 1898!

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Large article on Muscat by Emile Allemann in Le tour du monde

Important article with 20 photos of Muscat and surroundings taken in 1898.  The title of the article is " Mascate Voyage execute a la fin de 1898 Dessins d´apres des photographies de l´auteur" .

The article is by Emile Allemann and was published in In Le Tour du monde Tome Vii nouvelle Serie 7e liv  16 Fevrier 1901.  Our slide-show includes the 20 important photos form the article!

 

 Old photo family Sultan of Oman

Details of the important article on Muscat by Alleman

This magazine is a fantastic source on Muscat and surroundings with over 20 (!)  good photo illustrations dating from 1898 and published in 1901. The large article covering several pages has been written by Emile Allemann who worked for the French navy and the fine photos have also been taken by him.  The article and photos give an excellent impression of Muscat and its surroundings at the end of the 19th century!

We have included most of the photos in the slide-show.  This magazine is not referred to in most books / reference lists on Oman. The article has also be translated into other languages e.g. in Dutch.

References:
  1. Mascate Emile Allemann Le Tour du monde Tome VII nouvelle serie 7e liv 16 Fevrier 1901.
  2. Maskate Emile Allemann Dutch translation of reference 1 in De Aarde en haar Volken 1902.  page 193-204 Including some of the previous photos.
  3. Muscat gate Museum memoirs of history p 25,26 contains some photos of the first reference.

1910 Article describing a trip in the interior of Oman in 1910 including Nizwa, Bahla Fort, Jabreen, and Rostaq Fort.

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Photos by S.B. Miles Nizwa, Bahla Fort, Jabreen, and Rostaq Fort.

 

Article by S.B. Miles describing a trip in the interior including several photos and a large map.

It was published in the  1910 issue Geographical Journal of the Royal Geographical society London pages 159- 178; 400-425. 

 

 

 

 

Old photo Jabreen palace

Photo of Jabreen palace by Miles 1910

S.B. Miles exploring Oman

This article describes a trip by S.B. Miles in Oman. It contains early photos of Oman including photos of Bahla Fort, Jabreen Fort, Rostaq Fort and the House of Seyyi Hamood Azzan also in Rustaq.

References:
  1. Travels in Oman , Philip Ward, The Oleander Press 1987 page 242
  2. S.B. Miles On the Border of the greater desert: A journey in Oman

1911 French article on the Muscat slave-market and Gate

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Gate in Muscat or Muttrah slave-market

 

French article with the title " Le Traitants de Mascate / Marches d´esclave dans le Golfe Persique" regarding Muscat and its slavemarket in 1911 by Gervais-Courtellemont. 

The article was published in Journal des voyages nr 769 Paris page 226. It includes a full page photo of a gate in Muscat or Muttrah. 

 

 

 Antique photo Muttrah gate

 

French article on the Muscat slave-market

French Magazine.  Page 225 has a large full page size photo-engraving of the Muscat according to the text with men and masked ladies.

Comment: It could be the main gate in Muscat but it could also be the gate into the separate quarters in Muttrah where the Lawatya lived.

Text in the article: De la tete aux pieds l´arabe examine l´esclave qu´on lui presente, comme s´il s´agissait  dún cheval et, autour de lui , chacun des assistants s´interesse au marche surtout pour savoir le prix qu´il se decidera a donner . Ignorante du sort qui ici est reserve, douce et resignee, la jeune esclave attend sa decision, prete a suivre la nouveau maitre ou il lui plaira de l´emmener, a devenir  sa chose ou celle de ses femmes.

References:

  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007 photo 95, 96, 99 &100 Muscat?

Five rare antique postcards of Muscat and Muttrrah approx. 1900-1910

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Antique postcards Muscat and Muttrah

 

Five very rare postcards of Muscat harbour and Muttrah dating between 1900 and 1910.  For details see below.

All postcards are included in the slide-show. 

 Antique postcard Muscat Oman

Antique postcard Muscat Oman

 Antique postcard Muscat Oman

Antique postcard Muscat Oman British warship

 

Antique postcard Muscat Oman

Antique postcard Muscat Oman, landing place for small boats close to the palace

Antique postcard Muscat Oman

Antique postcard Muscat Oman, Sheik visits British ship

Antique postcard Muttrah Oman

Antique postcard  Muttrah Oman

Antique postcard British Consulate Muscat Oman

Antique postcard British Consulate Muscat Oman

Muscat postcard details:

Five early postcards of Muscat harbor and one of Muttrah:

a) Muscat from sea by A.R.  Fernandez printed in great Britain (showing a British warship)

b) Mascate vue de port by K. Arabiantz with a sailing ship in front of Muscat 1907

C) British Consulate Muscat by A.R. Fernandez printed in Great Britain

d) Sheik Motnafa Wali of Khasab (Musandam in Oman ) visits ship

e) Small boats being offloaded in Muscat harbor and sailing ships in a distance. by Tarjeta Postal(?) 1907

f) General view of Mathara Muscat (=Muttrah) by A.R Fernandez printed in Germany 

Muttrah is also protected by mountains on the land side. Hermann Burchardt Ref 2  mentions that  around 1900 Muttrah had 14000 residents and therefore was larger than Muscat and it also had replaced Muscat as a commercial center. Muscat  was the seat of administration and government.  However during the 17th century the Dutchman Padtbrugge also mentioned the importance of Muttrah as a trading center compared to Muscat.

For an article on the Lawatiyah quarter in Muttrah see ref 3.

 References:
  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brilll Leiden 2007 
  2. Along the Gulf from Basra to Muscat Photographs by Hermann Burchardt. By Annegret Nippa and Peter Herbstreuth. (contains a chapter on Oman)
  3. Throw down the anchor The story of the Muttrah souq by Maxine Burden, centre for Omani dress, Muscat Media Group page 94- 95.

1925 Photos by Sir Percy Cox in article Some excursion in Oman 1900 / 1925 Nizwa Tanuf

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Photos by Percy Cox Tanuf Nizwa Some Excursions in Oman

Sir Percy Cox / The Royal Geographical Society  Vol LXVI No3 pages 193-227 September 1925. Including two detailed maps at the end of the volume.

Photos of the interior of Oman taken in 1900 by Percy Cox when he was working in Oman, article published when he was head of the Royal Geographical Society. The photos include Nizwa and Tunuf. The one of Tunuf is interesting as most people know it only as a ruined city after the bombardment in the 1950´s by the British.

The photos are included in the photo slide-show.

 

 

 Antique photo Nizwa

Sir Percy Cox exploring Oman

The article describes a trip in Oman by Percy Cox made 25 years earlier (around 1900) when he was the British agent in Oman. The most interesting part of the article is the fact that it contains some very early photos of Oman taken in 1900.  It includes photos of the town Tanuf , Nizwa fort and the village Beni Habib in the Jebel Akhdar.  Sir Percy Cox became chairman of the Royal Geographical Society. When Rudolph the son of princess Emily Ruete and his wife were having tea with Mrs Cox,  Sir Percy Cox had a hunting accident and died.

In the "Books & Maps" section of our website we have a spectacular book "The Persian Question"  by Lord Curzon that belonged to Sir Percy Cox including his book-plate that shows him dressed as an Arab and dressed as a traditional Englishman, so he felt himself half an Englishman and half  an Arab! Percy Cox and Gertrude Bell also played a key role in the shaping of Iraq.

References:
  1. Sir Percy Cox Some excursion in Oman 1925 Royal Geographical Society
  2. Travels in Oman , Philip Ward, The Oleander Press 1987 page 291

Prisoners in Muscat Fort Al Jalali 1933

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Fort Al Jalali Prisoners returning

 

Photo taken by staff of HMS Duncan during a visit to  Muscat in 1933.

Text on the back of the photo tells us that these people are prisoners returning from their forced labor to the fort-prison Al Jalali. The fort guarding Muscat bay at the eastern end.  The name of the photographer is unknown.

 

 Antique photo Muscat

 Antique photo Muscat, prisoners fort Jalali

Photographer: Unknown

Description:

Al Jalali Fort was built by the Portuguese in 1587 and named Forte de São João (i.e. Saint John's Fort) Its Arabic name is said to derive from the Portuguese "João".  Like the Mirani Fort at the opposite end of the bay, Al Jalali's purpose was to protect Portuguese ships against the threat of attack, particularly by the Ottomans and Persians.  The fortress stands prominently on the top of a rocky hill commanding unobstructed views over the bay and old Muscat. The fort was captured by the Omani from the Portuguese in 1649 and was used for defensive purposes thereafter.  It underwent some restorations and expansions over the years until it was turned into a prison.  It is now no longer in use, but has undergone extensive restoration in recent years.  HMS Duncan was an impressive warship (a D-class destroyer leader) built for the Royal Navy in the early 1930´s.

References:
  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007 

British sepoys protecting the Sultan of Oman 1933

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Photo visit HMS Duncan to Muscat 1933

 

 

Photo Sepoys before British Consulate in Muscat guarding the Sultan of Oman. Photo taken by staff of HMS Duncan in 1933. 

 

 

 

 

Antique photo British consulate Muscat

 

British Sepoys protecting the consulate in Muscat 1933

 

Details:

Photos visit HMS Duncan to Muscat in 1933: Sepoys guarding the Sultan of Oman.  The building in the back is probably the British consulate in the harbor of Muscat

References:
  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brilll Leiden 2007 

Muscat graveyard 1933

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Unknown graveyard in Muscat 1933

 

Photo of an unknown graveyard and a little mosque? in Muscat 1933 

 

 

Muscat unknown graveyard

Identifying the location of the cemetary

Unknown old Arab  graveyard in Muscat Oman 1933. A pencil inscription on the back of the photo mentions it is in Muscat. It could be the Lughan quarters  cemetery in Muscat. However it it could also be one of the two mosques in Bandar Jissah, but we are not sure. 

References:

  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007  Has photos of several ancient cemeteries but have not positively identified the one  the aove photo.

Three rare early postcards of Muscat and one of Omani Bedouin (1900-1910)

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Three early postcards of Muscat and one of Omani Bedouin

Four early postcards of Muscat and one of Omani Bedouin:

a) Photo of outskirts of Muscat (real photo) by TLC?

b) Interior view of Muscat (French) by A.R. Fernandez

c) Bait Faransa. French Consulate Muscat by A.R. Fernandez

d) Oman Bedouins by A.R. Fernandez, printed in Great Britain 

See the photo slide-show for the four different postcard images.

Antique postcard Muscat

Photo outskirts of Muscat around 1900

Antique postcard bedouins Oman

Antique postcard Bedouins Oman

Antique postcard Muscat Oman

Antique postcard Muscat Oman, seen from the interior

 

Antique postcard  French consulate Muscat (Bait Faransa)

 

Postcard details

The postcard of Bait Faranza is also interesting, this was the old French consulate. See Ref 2 page 72: "Bait Faransa is located between al Bab al Kabir and the site of the old souq. According to Ian Skeet, who lived in the house in the late 19860´s, it was built sometime during the period 1820-1840 by Ghaliyah bint Salim bin Sultan. Her father was an elder brother of the famous Said bin Sultan, who ruled Oman as well as Zanzibar from 1807 to 1856. In 1896 the house was given by the Sutan Sayyid Faysal bin Turki, to the French Consul Paul Ottavi fro use as his consulate"

In 1992  Bait Faransa became the Franco Omani Museum.

References:
  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brilll Leiden 2007 
  2. Muscat gate museum memoirs of History, Allegro communications, Muscat 2001 page 72
  3. A French Consul in Muscat in 1905 by Xavier Beguin Billecoq Paris 1991

Royal presents for HMS Duncan 1933: Omani Khanjar and silver Omani coffeepot

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Omani Khanjar and silver coffeepot Photo Visit Muscat in 1933

 Silver Muscat shape Omani coffeepot and an Omani khanjar given to the captain of HMS Duncan by the Sultan when the ship was visiting Muscat in 1933

 

 

 

Antique photo of Omani dagger

Antique photo of Omani dagger khanjar

 

Details of the presents

Presents from the Sultan to the captain of the HMS Duncan 1933:

  •  Muscat coffeepot Dallah  (seems Indian hand work?)
  •  Khanjar
References:  Check

Sultan of Oman´s Royal household

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Note the Omani with the camera left

 

Rare photo of the Sultan of Oman´s Royal household  taken in 1936. Photographer unknown. Note the Omani on the left with his camera.

 

 

 Antique photo Oman royal Household

Sultan's household Muscat Oman, note the camera on the left

Details of the Royal household photo

Antique photo of the Sultan of Oman´s Royal household taken  in 1936. Note the Omani on the left carrying a photo camera! The slide-show contains a detail of this photo with the Omani photographer.

References: Check

Ryam village in Oman 1936

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Ryam village1936

 

Rare photo of Ryam village close to Muscat and taken  in 1936. Photographer unknown.

 

 Antique photo Antique photo Ryam village Oman

 Antique photo Ryam village Oman

Ryam village

Antique photo of the village Ryam close to Muscat and taken  in 1936

References:
  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007  photo 161 (1900 situation) photo 162 (1950 situation)

Muttrah bay 1936

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Photo of Muttrah ub 1936

 

Antique photo of Muttrah / Mattrah bay close to Muscat in Oman taken in 1936. Unknown photographer.

 

 

Antique photo Muttrah Bay Oman

 Antique photo Muttrah Bay Oman

Muttrah bay

Antique photo of Mattrah Muttrah harbor close to Muscat in Oman taken  in  1936

References:

  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brilll Leiden 2007 

Muscat seen from the land-side 1936

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Photo of Muscat Ryam Pass from the land-side 1936

 

Photo of Muscat (Ryam pass) seen from the land-side 1936. Photographer unknown.

 

 

 Antique photo Muscat Ryam pass Oman

 Antique photo Ryam pass Muscat Oman

Muscat form the landside

Antique photo of Ryam Pass Muscat taken from the land-side 1936

References:
  1. Historical Muscat An illustrated Guide and Gazetteer by J.E. Peterson published by Brill Leiden 2007  photo 158 (situation 1908) Note limited  change since 1908
  2. Vom Mittelmeer zum Perzischen Golf band II by Max von Oppenheim  page 328
  3. Islamic Art in Oman (situation around 1950) page 12

Sultan Said bin Taimur 1943

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Sultan Said bin Taimur 1943

 

Sultan Said bin Taimur boards HMS Enterprise during its visit to Muscat in 1943. He is the father of Sultan Qaboos, the current sultan of Oman. Photographer unknown.

 

 

 

 antique photo Omani sultan visiting British warship Muscat

Antique photo Sultan of Oman visiting British warship Muscat Oman

History of Sultan Said bin Taimur

Sultan Said bin Taimur inherited in 1932 a bankrupt and politically deeply divided country (coastal Muscat area and the tribal Oman interior) from his father Taimur bin Faisal.  He stabilized the extremely  difficult financial situation of the country and, surprisingly to many, may very well have been the right man for the period. However when oil was discovered in the 1950´s and the financial situation and opportunities for Oman dramatically improved he stuck to his old conservative policies, thereby obstructing the progress of the country resulting in discontent and an uprising in the country.  In 1970 he was peacefully removed from power by his son Qaboos with the help of the British. 

The father of Said bin Taimur  also already inherited a high public debt and widespread rebellion among the tribes in the interior. Between 1915 and 1920, the Sultan's forces were aided by British financial and material support against the rebel tribes, ensuring adequate resistance but not total victory. An uneasy situation of no war, no peace, existed, with the sultan controlling Muscat and the coastal towns and the Imam ruling the interior. This was tacitly codified in the Treaty of Seeb in 1920, brokered by the British political agent in Muscat. The treaty was between the sultan and the tribes, represented by Sheikh Isa bin Salih al Harthi, leader of the Al Harthi tribe. In return for full autonomy, the tribes in the interior pledged to cease attacking the coast.  Similar from around 1800 the Sultan of Oman already had to pay "protection" fees to the Saudi's to prevent attacks on Oman from their Wahhabi tribes.  

The 1920 Treaty of Seeb was, de facto, a partition agreement between Muscat and Oman (i.e. coastal areas and the interior) serving Britain's interest in preserving its power through the office of the sultan without having to dispatch British troops to the region ( divide and rule) The Treaty of Seeb ensured political peace between Muscat and Oman that lasted until the 1950s, when oil exploration in the interior reintroduced conflict. In return for accepting a truncation of his authority, the sultan received a loan from the government of British with an amortization period of ten years, sufficient to repay his debts to merchants. When Sultan Taimur ibn Faisal abdicated for financial reasons in 1932, the twenty-two-year-old Said ibn Taimur inherited an administration that was deeply in debt. The previous explains why until 1970 the name of Oman was "Muscat and Oman" and also why Sultan Said bin Taimur was so extremely reluctant to loosen financial controls when the oil income started.

References:

Omani visit to HMS enterprise in 1943, note the young boy drawing his khanjar!

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Omani officials (young boy / prince ) visit HMS enterprise in 1943

 

Omani officials and a young boy visit HMS enterprise in 1943. Unknown photographer.

 

Also note the Omani silver shields on the bullet purses on the belt of two the Omani men behind the boy.

 Antique photo Omani visiting British warship muscat

Antique photo Omani visiting a British warship in Muscat

Note the small boy with his dagger (Khanjar) drawn and putting up very fierce face for the photographer!! 

Description:

Omani officials  and a young Omani boy / prince  visiting the warship. !

References:

  1. Oman's national dress for man (special supplement)  in Times of Oman in association The Zubair cooperation 16 November 2015

Omani Young boy visiting HMS enterprise in 1943

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Visiting HMS enterprise in 1943

 

The same young boy that pulled his khanjar and put on a fierce face on the previous photo when visiting HMS enterprise in 1943. Photographer unknown.  

 

 

 

Antique photo Omani boy Muscat

Antique photo of Omani boy on board British Warship, same boy as on the previous photo

Description: Omani officials (young boy / prince ) visiting HMS enterprise in 1943

References:

  1. Oman's national dress for man (special supplement)  in Times of Oman in association The Zubair Cooperation 16 November 2015

British consulate in Muscat and Customs House 1943

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British Consulate in Muscat seen from HMS enterprise in 1943

 

View of the British consulate / embassy and the Omani Customs house in Muscat. Photo taken by staff of HMS Enterprise in 1943. Name of photographer unknown.

 

 Antique photo British Consultate Muscat

 Antique photo British Consulate Muscat

The British consulate in Muscat

Picture of the British Consulate Embassy. On the right of the consulate we see the Customs House which was built by the Portuguese around 1625 with in front the customs quay. To disembark with small boats onto the crumbling customs jetty was very difficult. In this region without hotels or public guest-houses, the consulates took care of travelers from Europe.  Occasionally the local sheik or Sultan invites visitors to stay.

References:
  1. Muscat Gate Museum Memoirs of history Page 42, Page 40 (photo bottom left) Page 86 (town-plan of Muscat with names of key buildings)

Seaplane / Water-plane on board the HMS enterprise 1943

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Waterplane on board the HMS Enterprise visiting Muscat in 1943

 

Seaplane / Water-plane on board the HMS Enterprise visiting Muscat in 1943. Photo taken by staff of HMS Enterprise.

 

 

 

Antique photo water plane onboard British  warship Muscat Oman

 Antique photo British water plane on board British Warship Muscat Oman

 

Description: Visit of HMS enterprise to Muscat in 1943. Picture of a water-plane on board the HMS Enterprise. Seaplanes carried aboard would enable shipping lanes to be patrolled over a wide area.