Craft heritage of Oman
Athman H. Athman stules of Swahili carving page 47 1996 11-29
Ruth Hawley Omani Silver, Longman, London
For the large wooden amulets from Zanzibar see the Afrika museum in Berg and Dal Netherlands
The peoples of Zanzibar, their customs and religious beliefs by Godfrey Dale, universities mission to central Africa Westminster London 1920. Page 38-44. He writes on page 38 "Belief in witchcraft and magic seems to be universal amongst the people of Africa, and even in Zanzibar and Pemba in spite of the presence of Islam, has a very strong hold on the minds of the people. Mohammed himself evidently believed in it, is said to have suffered from the consequences of it, and to have been given the last chapters of the Koran in order to enable him to recover from these consequences. In fact these two last chapters are considered to be of great value as a preservative against witchcraft, and are constantly inscribed on talismans or recited for this purpose etc."